Sunday, February 16, 2020

The role of John Brown and his quest to end slavery and how it may or Essay

The role of John Brown and his quest to end slavery and how it may or may not have the nation toward Civil War - Essay Example Brown moved to live amongst the black community to lead asafather to the slaves.Varied opinions emerged about his main objective and critics claimed was to arm slaves for a rebellion; he however denied that but eventually, his actions resulted to civil war. At the age of 50, Brown became a radical abolitionist who he deemed God had preferred him to lead slaves to freedom (DeCaro 15). According to him, even if the freeing slaves would entail force that was God’s will. Brown first declared his interest in leading an anti-slavery movement during his meeting with Frederick Douglas (DeCaro 15). In 1847 and according to Douglas, despite being a white man, he sympathized with the Blacks as if he felt the pains and cruelty that characterized their daily lives. In 1854, the Kansas –Nebraska Act gave citizens residing in either of the territories rights to decide whether they will cease from holding onto slavery of persist with it. He took advantage of this and moved to Kansas together with five of his sons. Numerous people who were against servitude also started relocating to Kansas with the intention of securing it for the pro slavery faction. He turned to be a significant icon undertaking anti-slavery guerilla agitations besides initiating slavery attack in Lawrence. In 1856, the invaded the town and killed five of its residence. He did this by combining his efforts together with that of sons to continue opposing slavery in Kansas and Missouri for the remaining part of 1856. Brown decided to launch an attack in Virginia whereby before then embarked on gathering an army and acquiring adequate funding to support his it (Elliot 61). He came up with an army of 21 men comprising of 5 blacks and 16 whites. Preparation took place in the freedman farm as they planned how to capture Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry. In their planning, they provided weapons such as pikes and rifles (DuBois, William, Finkelman, &

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Glider 2 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Glider 2 - Assignment Example for measuring the length of the glider, scissors, coping saw I blade and razor blades are the main materials and tools utilized in constructing Basal Gliders. The tools are majorly used in cutting unnecessary parts. The construction should begin by constructing the wing and using a wood stripper tool in cutting the thick strips of balsa. Moreover, there should be sheet weighing at least 10.6 grams. The sheet was more the one gram but less than 10.6 grams. The remaining parts were constructed with the available materials and tools. Preparation of fuselage or glider was the first step with each base width and components of tailpiece measured and recorded. Notches and slits were cut from the balsa wood length thus resulting to a full glider. All components of glider were assembled by gluing each individual component to the body of glider. This consumed quality time thus permitting adequate time for the drying of each component before attaching the next components. At this stage of glider construction, penny-nose weight was applied to the glider. Eventually, a tape was then utilized in affixing each penny to the glider’s nose, and ultimately resulting to a full glider. A starting line on the floor was marked using a masking tape. Flight distance testing had a minimum of 17feet to the landing target such as a desk or chair. The result of the flight test was then recorded on the scorecard. This process aids in predictions of the functionality and reliability of the balsa glide of meeting its target. Testing process used a minimum of two throws for the glider. The weight and balance of the glider was changed by moving the wings of the glider forward and backward, which affected the flying process of the airplanes. The wings of the Glide were increased to have a maximum gliding distance. Glide Ratio is computed by dividing the glide distance value with the altitude value of the glide. Glide flight-testing method is normally used to test the gliding distance and

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Elderly Patient Surgery Case Study

Elderly Patient Surgery Case Study Every nurse has the responsibility to safeguard their patients from harm and the NMC (2009a, p.14), states that it is every adults right to live in safety and be free from fear and abuse. There are a number of individuals who can be classed as a vulnerable person, these individuals can be either children or adults. A vulnerable adult is someone who is over 18 years old and meets any one of the following criteria: is receiving any form of healthcare or welfare service, needs assistance to carry out daily activities, unable to take care of him or herself and is unable to protect him or herself against harm. (DoH, 2009, Section 59)(DoH, 2000, p.8-9). Older people are generally regarded as vulnerable adults because of their general poor health and their high dependency on others to help with daily activities. In Peters case, he is not very young, is inclined to be forgetful and has mobility issues and therefore has the high probability of requiring help at home to help with his independe nce. All of these issues combined could have serious impacts on his health and safety which would mean that Peter could fit into each, if not all, of the mentioned categories and therefore he should be regarded as a vulnerable adult. The Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA) is responsible for the vetting and barring of any individuals who may come into contact with or work with vulnerable individuals (ISA, 2009, p.3). The ISA have an Independent Barring Board who are responsible for maintaining two separate lists, one for the protection of children and the other for the protection of vulnerable adults, which contain the names of any person who has been referred to them for the harming of any vulnerable person (ISA, 2009, p.3). The harming of a vulnerable person, whether it be physical, verbal, psychological, emotional, financial or neglect, is regarded as abuse. Vulnerable adults may be abused by a wide range of people, including family members and abuse can be in the form of a single or a recurring act. As Peters daughter wants him to have the surgery the nurse will have to establish whether there is an underlying reason for this. Assessment of this situation would be essential because intimidation or coerci on, which are both forms of psychological abuse, may cause Peter to be incapable of making his own decisions (DoH, 2000, p.11). As such, if this was assessed to be abusive behaviour, it would be important to remove Peter away from his daughter as the nurse has a duty of care to ensure that her patient remains safe at all times (NMC code). Nurses have a professional responsibility to their patients, are accountable for their actions when the patient is in their care and have a duty of care to ensure that the patient receives good quality care at all times (NMC code 1.4). Every nurse must always ensure that they work within their abilities and should raise any concerns, to a senior member of staff, if they have been asked to perform any duties which they are not competent in performing and therefore may potentially cause harm to the patient (NMC, 2009b). Reasonable care must be taken to avoid acts or omissions which are likely to cause reasonably foreseeable harm to whomever a duty of care is owed (Dimond, 2008, p.40). If the nurse does not provide sufficient care to the patient and causes harm as a result, she will be held liable in the tort of negligence (Tingle crib, p.92), which is a civil wrong for the breach of duty to take reasonable care not to injure or harm a person. In order to be held liable in the tort of negligence it must first be proven that the nurse owed a duty of care to that patient, next the claimant must prove that there was a breach in this duty of care and then it must be proven that the damage being claimed for was caused by this breach of duty (Tingle). The Bolam Test is the test which is used to determine a breach of duty and is concerned with how negligence should be established (Legal aspects). It does this by testing the standard of care which should be given from a professional and comparing it to the standard of care which was actually given in the cases of the alleged negligence (). Accountability means being responsible for something or to someone (NMC, 2002, p10). According to Dimond (2008, p.5), registered nurses are held accountable to the patient, the public, their employer and their profession, and these are known as the four arenas of accountability. Where the registered nurse is accountable to the patient and the public, she is accountable to the law and accountability to her employer means she is responsible for keeping to her contract of employment and failing to do so may result in a hearing in front of the employment tribunal. Professional accountability assumes that the nurse is a member of the profession and that she has accepted the rights, status and responsibilities of the profession (foundations, p.473). The NMC (2002, p.3) suggests that professional accountability involves using knowledge, skills, experience and professional judgement in order to make decisions which are in the best interests of the patient and should be able to justify the re asons for her decisions. This implies that nurses, as professionals, are competent in their area of practice, which allows the patient to gain trust in the nurse and enables the nurse to be able to act in the patients best interest (foundations, p.473). Therefore, nurses have a duty of care to those they care for and as such, this implies that there is a right and a duty attached to professional accountability. Registered nurses must follow the guidelines within the Code of Professional Conduct and as such should be legally accountable for their work (NMC, 2009b) and will be brought in front of the Fitness to Practice Panel, and possibly removed from the register, for unprofessional behaviour that breaches the Code of Conduct (Brooker and Nicol, 2003, p.6). This is different for nursing students, as they are only accountable to their employer, in this case the university, and the law. It is not possible to hold students professionally accountable as their names have not yet been entered onto the professional register however the NMC states that students are still responsible for their actions (NMC, 2010, p.1). From this it must be said that it will be the registered nurse who is mentoring, or working with, the student that can be held accountable for the students actions or omissions as it is their responsibility to ensure that the student is working within their abilities (Brooker and Nico l, 2003, p.7). Nurses are fundamentally responsible for the promotion and restoration of health, the prevention of illness and to ease suffering for their patients (Hendrick, p.76), however nursing is not just about treating a patients illness; its about caring, teaching and supporting a patient at a time when they need it the most. This can be done if the nurse makes building a nurse-patient relationship with her patient a priority in the patients care. Communication is a necessary foundation for any nurse-patient relationship to be built appropriately and there are a number of ways in which people can communicate such as verbally, non-verbally, written or electronically. The nurse should always communicate with the patient at their level of understanding and should always avoid using medical jargon when speaking to the patient (NMC). Effective communication is not just about talking, it involves active listening too and is an essential key in building a trusting relationship with the patient. Dif ferent communication techniques could be used between the nurse and the patient which include observing, listening, silence and open-ended questions (Brooker and Nicol, 2003, p.46). Without the appropriate use of these different communication techniques the relationship will not have a base to build on and if there is no relationship, the patient will not have the trust required for them to share their feelings, anxieties or wishes. In our scenario, Peter has opened up to the nurse by telling her how he is feeling and has put his trust in her to help him make the decision as to whether or not he should have the surgery. In this situation communication is the vital key as it is important that Peter is given open, honest, accurate and unbiased information about any procedures or assessments that will be carried out and the nurse must ensure that he fully understands the benefits, risks, side effects and consequences of these procedures (). The patient should be consulted every step of the way which will enable them to remain autonomous. All healthcare professionals should have a respect for their patients autonomy and should treat their patients as individuals, with rights, rather than objects of care (Hendrick, p.95). Autonomy is the right of the person to make their own decisions and accepting their choices. One way in which a patient can exercise their autonomy is by giving consent and as such, autonomy is a requirement for consent (tingle cribb, p.143). Consent can be given in different forms such as expressed or implied. Expressed consent can be either written or verbal and this can be given by the means of a written and signed consent form or by word of mouth. Implied consent can be a simple gesture, such as holding their arm out for an injection or by arriving at the hospital for an operation. Each form of consent is as equally valid as the other however, consent is only legally valid if it is given voluntarily, based on clear and accurate information and if the patient is competent (tingle and mchale, p.100 -105). Gillan (Tingle and Cribb, 2007, p.140) defines consent as a voluntary un-coerced decision made by a sufficiently autonomous person on the basis of adequate information to accept or reject some proposed course of action that will affect the patient. This definition suggests that communication, autonomy and consent are intricately liked as effective communication is important because you must give adequate, open and honest information to the patient in order for the patient to fully understand and consider all the issues involved, which will enable the patient to be able to make an autonomous decision and ultimately be able to give consent. No other person is authorised to give consent, for any procedure or treatment, on behalf of another adult unless they are the legal power of attorney for the patient (legal aspects). Gillans definition of consent states that consent can only be given by a sufficiently autonomous person. The DoH states that healthcare professionals must not make any assumptions that a person is incapable of making their own decisions, therefore they should carry out an assessment which would assess whether the individual is mentally capable of making these decisions for themselves. Autonomous decision making is therefore based on the matter of capacity or incapacity (foundations p.500). The term capacity is used to define the individuals ability to make their own decisions about a particular matter at a particular time (Legal aspects) and, as autonomy is the basic foundation for consent, if incapacity is suspected the individual is therefore not allowed to give consent until they are deemed competent. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 states that healthcare professionals are required to assume that every person has the capacity to make their own decisions and that the healthcare professional has to prove that the individual has a lack of capacity and must then be deemed incompetent (tingle and crib, p.143). Deciding whether a person has the capacity to make informed decisions for themselves is determined using the assessment tools defined in the Mental Capacity Act and cannot be established or judged by an individuals age or appearance (The Mental Health Act section 2 and 3). There are two basic concepts that underpin the Act these are: the concept of capacity and the concept of best interests (Legal aspects). Both of these concepts link together and as such, if the patient lacks mental capacity actions can be taken or decisions can be made on their behalf and these must be made or taken in the best interests of that person. The assessment used to determine whether a patient is capable of making a treatment decision is split into two stages: the first stage is to determine whether the patient has any issues which prevent them from making a decision, and the second is to establish if this issue which prevents the patient from making a decision causes the patient any problems in communicating their decisions or wishes (Legal aspects). A person is not able to make their own decisions for themselves if they are not able to understand any of the information given to them, remember the information, utilise that information as part of the decision making process and are not able to convey or share their decision (Legal aspects). However, if the information is not given to the patient in a way that is appropriate to his circumstances such as using simple words or visual aids, they are not to be judged as unable to understand that information (legal aspects, p.139). Additionally, if the patient has a short memory span and can only retain information for a short period, they must not be classed as unable to make their own decisions, as this issue may not prevent them from being able to make the decision relevant to the treatment (legal aspects, p.139). In such instances this decision must be made whilst the information is still held within the patients memory. From this is must be said that every person should be encourag ed and enabled to make their own decisions or to participate as fully as possible in the decision-making, by being given the help and support they need to make and express a choice (NMC, 2008a). In this scenario it states that Peter has an inclination to be forgetful, because of this he must not automatically be deemed incompetent and it is vitally important that all the steps required to deem a person incompetent must be taken into account. One of the steps suggests that even though the Peter has a short memory span, it is vital to ensure that the information given is understood clearly and that the decision is made before the he forgets. This would enable Peter to give informed consent, however if he forgets this information and has not made an informed decision before his memory span lapses he must be deemed incompetent. From this we can establish that it is important to have the necessary mental capacity as it protects the individuals right to make their own decisions (legal aspects). If the individual is lacking in capacity then decisions need to be made on their behalf and these decisions that are made on behalf of someone else should be the decisions which limit the p ersons basic rights and freedoms the least (legal aspects mc). The Human Rights Act 1998 ensures that individuals rights are respected and that basic human rights such as the right to life, the right to not be discriminated against, the right to liberty, and the right to freedom from torture or degrading treatment and the right to respect for private and family life, home and correspondence are promoted (Human Rights Act 1998). These rights can be promoted by providing high standard of care and treatment, respecting a patients privacy, dignity and confidentiality and by safeguarding the patients from harm. A persons rights and freedoms are protected and promoted by the nurse when she acts as an advocate for them. Being an advocate for the patient is vitally important as it ensures that the patients choices and decisions are respected. The nurse can act as an advocate in many different situations such as, offering an alternative explanation, or asking the other professionals to give the information again in basic terms, if the nurse feels that the patient has not been given clear, honest and adequate information. (NMC). Another way for the nurse to act as an advocate is to try to adhere to the patients wishes if the patient was proved to be incompetent; if this is not possible then she must act in their best interests. As Peter has asked the nurse in this scenario to help him make the decision as to whether or not he should have the surgery, he is putting his trust in her and allowing her to become his advocate. However, until all the necessary steps have been taken to ensure whether Peter has understood what he has been told and once his mental capacity has been assessed, no other person can make this decision for him, unless he was deemed to be mentally incompetent. If he was deemed to be incompetent the decision as to whether he has the surgery or not will be made by the healthcare professionals, unless his daughter has lasting power of attorney, and will be based on his best interests. The decision that is likely to be made is that Peter will go ahead with the surgery, as this is in his best interests and will improve his quality of life. If Peter is deemed competent, then Peter should make the decision for himself and his decision will be final. If Peter decides not to go ahead with the surgery, then Peters home life would need to be assessed. Inter-professional working is required in order to care for the patient holistically. Holistic care is primarily concerned with ensuring that the patients basic needs are met (NMC, 2009a, p.9) and making sure that any observations, medications and decisions are recorded accurately (NMC, 2008b, p.6). A nurses role also includes supporting and teaching the patient and their families about the illness or about improving their lifestyle to prevent the illness from re-occurring. It is extremely important that the nurse develops a close working relationship with these other multi-disciplinary professionals, as Peter will need support when he gets home whether or not he has had the surgery. The range of other professionals which may be involved in Peters care when he gets home include social workers, occupational therapists and physiotherapists. It may be possible that Peters daughter may be pushing for Peter to have the surgery as she may be his primary carer and might be feeling stressed or overworked and if this surgery can improve his mobility, this may offer her some form of relief. If this is the case, the nurse could arrange for a carer to help them within their home and that way Peters daughter may get some relief from the work involved in his care. In this case, the nurse can act as an advocate to ensure that the decisions are not being made for him or that he is under no undue pressure or being forced to make the decision. Being an advocate for a patient implies that there should be a level of trust between the nurse and the patient and this level of trust can be built up through a therapeutic relationship. Therapeutic relationships are an intervention which is central to nursing and a nurse should have an essence of self-awareness and self-knowledge and have an awareness of the boundaries of the professional role in order to be able to establish a therapeutic relationship with their patient. Effective communication, trust, respect, genuineness, acceptance and empathy are key principles in establishing this relationship (Brooker and Nicol, 2003, p.45). When this relationship has been established the patient may feel at ease to share information and have a willingness to open up and share their feelings (Dossey and Keegan, 2008, p.370). Establishing and maintaining this nurse-patient relationship is vital to the holistic care of the patient and even though the nurse should develop a close relationship w ith the patient in order to open up communication barriers she must always keep and emotional distance from the patient and their families. It is the nurses responsibility to ensure that she never oversteps the professional boundaries throughout the care of the patient (NMC Code). In conclusion it has been established that in order for a patient to be given high quality, safe care a nurse needs to have the appropriate skills and knowledge to be able to perform the even the simplest of tasks competently. This assignment has briefly looked at the importance of a therapeutic relationship with communication being one of the vital keys, as without using it effectively it will be difficult to bond and build a professional relationship with the patient. It has also been identified that every nurse has a duty to protect their patients, that they should safeguard their patients and promote their rights and autonomy. It is vitally important that the nurse has the confidence to speak up to other professionals if she feels that the information hasnt been delivered to the patient honestly, accurately or clearly, otherwise she could be held accountable if something was to go wrong. The importance of the guidelines and codes issued by the NMC, have also been discussed, as th ey are in place to help protect, not only the patient, but also the professionals who are involved in the patients care. One of the guidelines which has been focused on, is for the nurse to make sure that the patient has given informed consent without any undue pressure and that the nurse, acting as the patients advocate, can help protect the patient. We have also looked at the importance of using assessment tools to assist in decision making process as this is used to identify whether the patient has the capacity to give consent or not. We have established that all health care professionals need to work together as a team and must communicate, not just with each other, but with the patient and his family to ensure patients needs are met and that every patient should be awarded the opportunity to live independently or be offered help and support from the necessary health care professionals to enable the patient to live as independently as possible.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Leader More Feared than Loved: Evaluating Chapter 17

A leader is someone who is followed by others. All managers are not leaders, but good leaders can be good managers. Those who are not trusted or respected by their employees may fail when attempting to institute something new. They can tell everyone to do something, and even show them how, but the employees do not embrace the new program and it may not succeed. Employees, on the other hand, will embrace a new program (even if they don't particularly like it) simply because they trust the manager's judgment and vision.We have heard about military leaders who led their troops into dangerous, near-certain death situations. On the other hand, we heard about soldiers in Vietnam who assassinated officers rather than obey them. Why would soldiers in the first example follow the officer into battle knowing they would probably be killed, while those in the second case not only refused to follow, but actually went so far as to kill the officer? Was it because of the cause or because of the off icer?Niccolà ² Machiavelli wrote The Prince during the Renaissance in sixteenth-century Florence, Italy. It was one of the first texts on leadership. Machiavelli was a government official during a period of warfare and political intrigue between city-states vying for hegemony, and he had a cynical view of human nature, believing that people were motivated by very narrow self-interest.Most highlighted in the book is Machiavelli’s dictum, found in Chapter 17, which advised the leader or prince that it was better to be feared than to be loved by the governed because love is a fickle emotion, whereas fear is constant. In other words, survival is a basic human instinct that dominates other emotions. Machiavelli also suggested that a leader should engage in lies or deceptions for the good of society, as long as he appears to be virtuous to the people.The leader should be fair yet tough, harshly punishing disloyal subjects to discourage others from engaging in treason. Machiavelli believed that the aristocrats close in stature to the prince posed the greatest threat to his welfare and that the prince had to use cunning and intrigue to keep them off balance. Thus, he warned the leader not to trust his peers. He believed that an effective leader forms alliances of convenience with some enemies to keep more powerful enemies off balance.Summarizing Chapter 17At the beginning of Chapter 17 of The Prince, Machiavelli purports that there is no doubt that the leader must have compassion.   Similar to being generous, compassion is usually admired by everyone. However, Machiavelli warned that a prince must be careful that he does not show compassion indiscriminately. If a prince is too compassionate, and does not adequately punish disloyal subjects, he creates an atmosphere of disorder, since his subjects take the liberty to do what they please—even to the extremes of murder and theft. With this, Machiavelli envisioned that these crimes might harm the entire c ommunity, whereas executions harm only the individuals who commit crimes.Thus, Machiavelli suggested that some degree of cruelty is necessary to maintain order in a particular community. However, the prince must heed the warning of being judicious in terms of his decisions with regards to cruelty; it should be coupled with critical judgement, humanity and prudence.At this point, Machiavelli reflected on whether is it better off being feared or being loved. Ideally, a prince should be both loved and feared, but this condition is nearly perfect and difficult to attain. So Machiavelli deemed, when forced to make a choice, it is much better to be feared than loved. This is because men, by nature, are â€Å"ungrateful, fickle, dissembling, anxious to flee danger, and covetous of gain.† This decision is most applicable during times of danger or emergencies, it is easier to break a bond of love when the situation arises, but the fear of punishment is always effective, regardless of the situation.Yet, Machiavelli reminded that when choosing to generate fear, a prince must be wary to avoid inducing hatred. This is for the reason that the leader must make sure that every move he makes are properly justified and agreeable to majority of his people. Most importantly, leaders should not abuse his authority by taking the property of his subjects or take their women, since these actions are most likely to breed hatred. If a prince must confiscate property, he must make sure he has a convincing reason. With one’s army, however, there is no such thing as too much cruelty. Keeping an army disciplined and united requires cruelty, even inhuman cruelty.In a nutshell, Chapter 17 of The Prince argues that it is better for a prince to be severe when punishing people rather than merciful because severity through death sentences affects only a few, but it discourages crimes which affects many people. Moreover, Machiavelli ultimately recommended that it is better to be fea red than to be loved. But Machiavelli warned of the prince should avoid being hated, which he can easily accomplish by not taking away the property of his subjects: â€Å"people more quickly forget the death of their father than the loss of their inheritance.†Man of No Virtueâ€Å"The man of virtà º has no virtue.†Ã‚   This statement does adequately describe one of Machiavelli’s position in The Prince.   Machiavelli can be seen as a supporter of Remigio and Dante, rather than Aristotle. Throughout his treatise, Machiavelli most definitely strives to achieve peace, but he feels that virtue is not necessary.   Rather, Machiavelli suggests that peace should be the sole legitimizing factor of a ruler.   A good ruler should simply rule by whatever means necessary to achieve peace.   A good ruler ignores virtue and must be practical, rather than impractical.   The practical ruler is tightfisted, justly cruel, feared and respected, dependent on subject loyal ty, and able to use advisers as tools.First and foremost, what is the difference between virtà º and virtue?   A person who is said to possess virtue is commonly seen as a person who is of high moral excellence and upright goodness.   Common virtues include prudence, courage, and practicality.   Virtues are most often found in people who are seen as good.   Virtà º, while extremely similar to virtue, is not quite the same thing in terms of Machiavelli’s usage of the word.   On pages 103 and 104 in Appendix B of The Prince, virtà º is defined.   It is defined as having various senses, which include, â€Å"ability, skill, energy, determination, strength, spiritedness, courage, or prowess.†Ã‚   The common reader might interpret all of these senses as differing aspects of virtue.   Also, a good ruler is commonly perceived as having virtue or even virtà º.   However, Machiavelli had something a little different in mind.Normally, the term virtà º is most ly frequently used synonymously with the term virtue.   Machiavelli uses the term a little differently.   On page 104, it states that, â€Å"Machiavelli’s use of the word has overtones of ‘ruthlessness,’ which is not a characteristic of a good man.†Ã‚   Of course, the word which is being described is virtà º.   On the same page of Appendix B, virtà º is properly defined in Machiavellian terms.   It states, â€Å"Virtà º, then, in this usual sense (or set of senses) denotes qualities that may have been combined with ‘villainy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ Ã‚   Therefore, Machiavelli is generally arguing that the man of villainy and ruthlessness has no moral excellence and upright goodness.   Since good leaders possess virtà º, good leaders must thereby be villainous and even nefarious.   This can be seen throughout the whole of The Prince.Throughout The Prince, Machiavelli argues that in order to be an excellent ruler, one must possess virtà º.   V irtue is definitely not necessary under a Machiavellian form of rule.   According to Machiavelli, a good ruler is one who is in control and will do whatever is necessary to be successful.   The most notable examples can be found in chapters fifteen through twenty-three.In chapter 15 of The Prince, Machiavelli gives his first argument as to why rulers should be ruthless.   On page 55, Machiavelli states, â€Å"Yet one should not be troubled about becoming notorious for those vices without which it is difficult to preserve one’s power†¦Ã¢â‚¬ Ã‚   On the same page, Machiavelli goes on to write, â€Å"†¦doing some things that seem virtuous may result in one’s ruin, whereas doing other things that seem vicious may strengthen one’s position and cause one to flourish.†Ã‚   Essentially, Machiavelli is saying that a superb ruler should not worry about possessing virtue.   A proper ruler should have no problem with making friends with vice, so l ong as in doing so the ruler is being practical and successful.   After all, there is no reason to be ruthless without practicality.   The only reason for a lack of practicality would be sheer and blatant ignorance.In chapter sixteen of The Prince, Machiavelli goes on to write that a good ruler should not be overly generous.   On page 57, Machiavelli states that the charitable ruler will rule while, â€Å"†¦being despised and hated; and generosity will lead to both.†Ã‚   This emphasizes the fact that a tight-fisted ruler will be more popular, and thereby, the better ruler.   A ruler who is parsimonious will have money when it is necessary.   Machiavelli stresses this on page 56.   Rulers who do not waste their money on building projects, artistic patronage, or friendly gifts, will have plenty of money when it is needed, say when a rival state rises up to attack.   A ruler who is tight-fisted also would not need to tax his subjects as much as a generous rule r.   A generous ruler would need constant high taxes due to his lavish expenditure or open-handedness.   Of course, generosity is a virtue; and in order to posses virtà º, and hence, a good rule, generosity must be left in the dirt.   Therefore, the man who is tight-fisted has no virtue.Machiavelli’s next argument as to why the ruler of virtà º can have no virtue comes in the next chapter, that is, chapter seventeen.   When comparing the cruel and feared ruler to the merciful and loved ruler, the cruel and feared ruler is the exceedingly better ruler.   After all, Machiavelli states on page 59, â€Å"†¦it is much safer to be feared than loved.†Ã‚   Cruelty is needed to maintain order. If a ruler is cruel to simply those who disobey the law, the lawbreakers alone will suffer.   Hence, the people under the ruler will learn not to break the law, due to fear of punishment.   Therefore, peaceful order will surely ensue.   However, if he is excessively kind and lets public order break down, everyone suffers from the increase in the excess of subsequent robbery, murder, rape, etc.   Cruelty is most definitely not a virtue; so therefore, Machiavelli agrees again that the man of virtà º lacks any virtue.  Next, on page 64 of chapter nineteen, Machiavelli argues that a ruler becomes despised when he acquires the reputation of being, â€Å"†¦inconstant, frivolous, effeminate, pusillanimous and irresolute: a ruler must avoid contempt as if it were a reef.†Ã‚   In order for a ruler to stay in the people’s favor, he must become none of these.   Rather, a good ruler would constantly try to be the opposite of these.   Thus, a good ruler must be usual and accepted, determined and motivated, masculine and rugged, dauntless and courageous, and resolute and unequivocal.If these qualities are necessary for the best possible ruler, that ruler should have no problem in trying to attain and maintain these qualities.   Again, the ruler should not bother with virtue.   Rather, he or she should attempt whatever in their power is necessary to achieve and preserve these qualities.   Also, although some people may view these qualities as virtuous, they are still to be attained through whatever means necessary.   This is a quality of a man of virtà º.   Virtue must be placed aside while attempting to gain these qualities.Following this argument comes one which involves the importance of a fortress.   On page 76, Machiavelli states, â€Å"†¦I criticize anyone who relies upon fortresses, and does not worry about incurring the hatred of the people.†Ã‚   Despite the great importance of military power, a ruler who bases his rule on building fortresses to intimidate and threaten his subjects cannot rule securely. The subjects would simply not tolerate it.   More than likely, they would look for assistance elsewhere, such as a foreign power, and overthrow the ruler.   Therefore, the single best fortress that a ruler can have is the loyalty of his or her subjects.Without subject loyalty a ruler is useless.   In order to maintain subject loyalty, a ruler must be good.   In order to be a good ruler he or she must be feared by the subjects, as well as be cruel and tight-fisted.   Again, this emphasizes the fact that the best possible ruler can posses no virtue.A final argument is brought forth in chapters twenty-two and twenty-three.   On page 80, Machiavelli states, â€Å"The choosing of ministers is a very important matter for a ruler: whether or not they are good depends on whether he is shrewd or not.†Ã‚   A prince needs able advisers.   If the ruler chooses wise advisors, the subjects of the ruler will take him or her to be wise as well.   Also, just like the subjects of the rulers, advisers should also be loyal and fearful of the ruler.   The ruler must act the same way towards his advisors as he or she does to the subjects.   This wil l show the people that they are no different from the advisors.   No jealously would ensue and no rights would be violated.   Although, there was no specific rule regarding rights at the time, the subjects would no doubt at least feel inferior.   Thus, rule would be maintained by virtà º and not by virtue, as was previously stated, because cruelty is needed to maintain peace.Machiavelli goes on in chapter twenty-tree to describe more specifically how a ruler is to properly use his or her advisors.   After a ruler has taken advice from the advisor, he must make up his own mind about policy decisions. A good ruler should not accept unsolicited advice, and he or she should not let the advisers talk the ruler into constantly changing his mind.   This would show everyone that the ruler possesses poor qualities of a ruler.   The ruler must rule, not the advisors.   Again, the ruler must do this by whatever means necessary.   Thus, virtà º is again favored above virtue.Ul timately, in Machiavellian terms, the man of virtà º most definitely does not possess virtue.   The man of virtà º, or the good ruler, must be cruel, feared, tightfisted, reliant on subject allegiance, and able to use advisors as tools.   The man of virtue would never be any of these.   Therefore, the man of virtue would not make a good ruler.   Therefore, Machiavelli definitely does not agree with Aristotle in his opinion that virtue can legitimize a ruler.   Rather, Machiavelli agrees with Remigio and Dante, in that peace can be substituted for virtue.   So long as peace is achieved, a ruler is successful and good.   Peace, through whatever means necessary, is solely legitimizing.ConclusionSome leaders nowadays are still taking their cues from Machiavelli's proposition in Chapter 17 of The Prince, believe that fear is more reliable than love as a means of influencing people. It is true that if someone hates and fears you, his or her behavior may be quite predictabl e. If you have the allies to back up your threats, it may not be necessary for you to get along with the people you work with. But power in public bureaucracy is often a temporary thing, like powerlessness. Yesterday's powerless subordinate may be tomorrow's powerful boss.Machiavelli proposed that it is better to be more feared than loved. You can lead by the force of high moral example. History and experience have proven that it could be done. But it's risky, because people are fickle, and they will abandon you at the first sign of failure. Fear is much more reliable, and lasts longer. Once you show that you are capable of dealing out terrible punishment to your enemies, your power will be far greater.In closer analysis, Machiavelli’s proposition is somewhat more troublesome to apply in today’s hierarchy. At present, it is unusual for any leader to have authority over every aspect of his or her job or status. For example, a supervisor might need the help of the person nel office, if he wants to hire someone. You need the help of the budget staff if you must obtain certain resources and need to move money from one cost center to another. Organizations operate informally, as well as through a formal hierarchy. In order to get things done, you must sometimes exchange favors and information.Thus, the effectiveness of a leader in any organization will be a direct reflection of his or her ability to get along with people. You will find it easier to get your work done if people want to help you because they like you or even because they feel sorry for you. If you are feared or hated, you may get cooperation when people have no choice, but the minute you turn your back, your colleagues will find a thousand ways to undermine your attitude.Working in organizations or leading a community involves a series of exchanges rather than power relationships. Like the rest of society, organizations are more complex in the twenty-first century.   As organizations c hange, downsize, and modernize, complexity does not decrease because organizations increase their use of advanced technology and knowledge. Machiavelli’s proposal that leaders should better be â€Å"feared than loved† would be definitely inappropriate and dangerous, if applied in our time. Just think about the people you step on as you climb up the career ladder might very well see you again on your way down the ladder. Effective leaders should take the long term perspective in considering their strategies.Aggressive leadership does not require you to disregard the feelings of subordinates or co-workers. Leaders who are committed to the long term perspective usually become quite skilled at influencing people and at stroking key individuals within the organization. Thus, as Machiavelli’s proposition might have some good points, it could not be well applicable, if we consider the fast-changing times that, more often than not, frown upon leaders who lash out fear o n their people.Works CitedMachiavelli, N. The Prince. (Anthony Grafton, Introduction; George Bull, trans.). London: Penguin Classics, 1999.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Most Controversial and Debated Issue of Abortion

Abortion One of the most controversy issues that have had many Americans debating over the years is abortion. But why so much controversy? Well to start with we have to understand what abortion is. According to the Oxford dictionary, abortion is the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, most often performed during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy. There are also 2 types of abortions. The first one is Therapeutic abortion, which the baby is aborted for the safety of the mother, and elective abortion, in which the abortion is performed due to a choice that the mother has made for an unborn child. In other words, abortion is the end or the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus by natural causes or by clinical methods before it is able to survive independently. Since the past 60 years after the famous Roe v Wade case was passed by the Supreme Court, many Americans have being against and for abortion. This decision led to the formation of two groups the anti-abortion and the pro-choice. Anti- abortion are known as pro-life people or groups and the pro-choice are those who want to legalize abortion. What really happened in the Roe v Wade case? First we have to look at the time line of abortion. In the mid-1800s â€Å"states began to pass laws that made illegal abortion. As a consequence many women were dying because around those years 1800s, any surgical procedures were risky and put life in danger† (Time Line of Abortion.) Also the Medical Association argued that abortion wasShow MoreRelatedAbortion : Why Politics Can t Find Common Ground1317 Words   |  6 Pages Abortion: Why Politics can’t find Common Ground Emily Gonzales English 5B Professor Gabriel Ibarra 17 Nov. 2015â€Æ' Abstract Abortion as we all know, is a controversial topic that has been known to debate on whether it should be legal or illegal. Abortion is the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, most often performed during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy. This particular issue goes way back and even though it is legal now in some places it is still being debated on. Those individualsRead MoreAbortion: A Heated Debate and Hot Topic in the United States Essay1256 Words   |  6 Pagesdebates are always a hot topic and very controversial issues. Due to how controversial they are, is why they become such largely debated topics with many people having very different views on the specific topic. For example, there is a Democratic and Republican party in the United States; people either stick with one side or the other due to their beliefs and sometimes can be neutral or on the other party’s side for certain topics. Abortion is a very controversial topic as it always has been all aroundRead M oreThe Debate on Abortion Laws in the United States 1256 Words   |  5 Pagesdebates area always a hot topic and very controversial issues. Due to how controversial they are is why they become such largely debated topics with many people having very different views on the specific topic. For example there is a Democratic and Republican party in the United States people either stick with one side or the other due to their beliefs and sometimes can be neutral or on the other party’s side for certain topics. Abortion is a very controversial topic as it always has been all aroundRead More History Of Abortion Essay1019 Words   |  5 Pages The History of Abortion nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Abortion is the ending of a pregnancy before birth. An abortion results in the death of the embryo or fetus and may be either spontaneous or induced. For years, abortion has been an extremely controversial subject. The history of abortion reaches back not just decades, but centuries, and even milleniums. Today, policies regarding legal abortion in the U.S. is being debated everywhere. Many myths and misconceptionsRead MoreAbortion Is The Most Controversial Right1377 Words   |  6 Pagesinduced abortions are common and occur among women of all social and economic groups. Where the abortion rate is high, it likely reflects that levels of contraceptive use are not sufficient to meet the fertility desires and family planning needs of women and couples. History/background of the issue: Since 1996, abortion rates declined by at least 2% per year in 12 of the 28 countries with complete abortion counts and trend data, and rates increased by this much in two countri es. Abortion rates wereRead MoreAbortion: A Controversial Debatable Topic Essay1505 Words   |  7 PagesAbortions have long been a controversial and debatable topic. Politicians and religious groups, and most individuals have a strong opinion or view regarding the topic. Society has two very different views regarding abortions. Those that oppose abortions for various reasons are considered pro-life, while those that believe abortion is a woman’s choice are considered pro-choice. The arguments that each side believes are considerably very different and often cause outrage or extreme emotional responsesRead MoreAbortion Thesis Essay1250 Words   |  5 Pages Thesis Abortion is a totally unacceptable, cruel and unethical practice and should be considered illegal except under some special cases and medical circumstances that indicate a danger to the mother. Our judicial system must consider the ethical and moral aspects of abortion as an intrinsic part of the problem when approaching this social issue. The recent banning of the partial birth abortion is a huge stride in the positive direction. Introduction Abortion is the one ofRead MoreAbortion : Pro Choice And Pro Life Essay1224 Words   |  5 PagesAbortion Issue in the United States (Section 1) Abortion is one of the most controversial issues in America that is centered between advocates that are pro-choice and pro-life. Intentional miscarriages occur when a women induces the termination of a human during pregnancy, the procedure happens during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy. Pro-life and pro-choice advocates differ in many of their opinions, over the years the government has been trying to deal with the problem/issue, and now there are possibleRead More Abortion is a Choice Essay1258 Words   |  6 PagesAbortion is a Choice Abortion is a very controversial issue that has been continually argued over the past few years and will continue for years to come. Before I get into the sides of abortion we must first define abortion. Abortion is the destruction of the fetus, or unborn child while the child is still in the mothers womb. There are two sides to this abortion topic. The Pro-life which is those who are against abortion altogether and the Pro-choice those who believe it is the womens rightRead MoreRepercussions of Mental Health After Terminating Pregnancy Essay example1218 Words   |  5 Pagestopics are as important to the long term societal standpoint as abortion. Even more important and contested is the controversial subject of whether or not a woman will endure long term psychological effects or disorders after said abortion. This subject has been highly debated, with valid points made by both sides. It is important that we all look into these repercussions, especially since approximately 33% of women will undergo an abortion by the time they reach forty-five years old. This often challenged

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

The Role Of Finance And Its Effect On Portfolios, Managing...

BSAD 310: Business Finance Whittier College Radoniqi Summer 2016 Quiz #1 1. Explain the role of finance in society. The common perception is that finance is associated with wealth management – enlarging portfolios, managing portfolio risks and tax liabilities, ensuring that rich grow richer. On the other hand, good society is considered to be the one in which people respect and appreciate each other. From that point of view it seems that finance and good society are like an oxymoron, finance goals are contradicting with those of society. There are conspiracy theories like Pax Morgana that the financial system is guilty for the Great Depression. That theory was revitalized nowadays with the 2008 financial crisis as well. The†¦show more content†¦Illustrate these decisions with examples. Among the most important decisions that a company takes are the following ones: dividend distribution, investment decisions and financing decisions. 2.1. At the end of each year when financial statements are verified by the auditors, the company management is facing the dilemma: what to do with the profit? The dilemma is related with the question whether to please shareholders by giving them large dividends or to keep the money in the company for investment purposes. This decision however does lie exclusively in the hands of the company management. If they decide large dividends, then the funds needed for investments and growth will be reduced significantly. This may jeopardize the company’s competitive position – without investments, the company’s future is always at stake. 2.2. If the company’s shareholders decide to vote small dividends then the management will have more funds for investments. As a rule companies approve those projects that have a positive net present value and the rate of return is higher than the hurdle rate. 2.3. If company profit is not sufficient to cover the investment plans, then the company has to start looking for external financing in order to fulfil its investment program. Financing however may be costly if company results are not good enough to motivate any bank to give a loan. If banks refuse a loan, then the company should try to raise funds on the stockShow MoreRelatedBasic Finance2034 Words   |  9 PagesFinance has a close relationship to a number of other business disciplines. It is important that we understand why a finance major needs these other skills and abilities.   Lets take them one at a time: 1. Economics  provides the theory that finance uses.   The field of finance is a very new discipline, beginning formally around 1920.   Before that, financial problems were referred to as economic problems or (even earlier) problems in political economy.   During the 1920s, finance broke awayRead MoreIntroduction to Financial Management2309 Words   |  10 Pagesthis lecture is to provide you with an overview of financial management. After finishing this lecture, you would be able to have a better understanding of the following. Definition of financial management Significance of financial management for non-finance students and professionals Important concepts and areas in financial management The position of financial managers in organizational hierarchy and their respective work domains. Different business legal entities, their advantages and limitations.Read MorePerformance Evaluation of Merchant Banking8201 Words   |  33 Pages2009). 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Tuesday, December 24, 2019

The United States Foundation And New England - 1225 Words

The United States foundation started off with the thirteen colonies. The thirteen colonies consists of Maryland, New Hampshire, Virginia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Georgia. All of them were separated into three categories. These categories are known as Southern, New England, and Middle colonies. The New England colonies consists of Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire. In New England the types of settlers were basically English, Puritan, and farmers. Also the Geography/climate is known as rocky, forests, hilly, poor soil, long winters, and limited farming. In New England major towns they built around a commons, Boston, Providence, and newports. The major economic activities that new england did small farms, merchants, craftsmen, boatbuilding, whaling, lumbering, and fishing or gathering fish. The religious groups back in the time in that area was the Puritans and they were very strict, gloomy, and superstitious. The educational opportunities that the colonies were given in this place were pretty clear and straight to the point. There was schooling for both boys and girls which means sex differentiality didn t really mean anything well it s kind of like it is today. Only that in those times the only allowed marriage was a man and a female nothing more. It was important that everyone could read the bible to understand and learn the ways of theirShow MoreRelatedReasons for Colonial Migration were Gold Glory, and God649 Words   |  3 Pagespositions in government in the new place. God was to escape religious persecution. Another area of migration was also slaves to go work the land. Many groups migrated to the New World from many different places, for many different reasons, and had many effects on the New World. Two groups of migration are the Pilgrims, and the Quakers. 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The document made such an impression because it was a new and differnet way of dealing with political issues, and they werent asking forRead MoreJohn Locke And Natural Rights1049 Words   |  5 PagesIn the 18th century in England, many new thoughts and ideals were appearing. During this time, famously known as the Enlightenment, philosophers thought of ways to better governments in the world. There were six main ideals that arose from this time period: progress, reason, natural rights, separation of powers, the social contract and laissez-faire. These ideals shaped many governments throughout the world. The most significant ideal is natural rights. The idea of natural rights influenced manyRead MoreDiverse Cultures in the Colonies Essay857 Words   |  4 Pages The colonies of the New World were formed by a very diverse group of people. The colonists had personal reasons for settling in America. Socially, politically, and religiously they all differed. 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Americans were overall outraged into war by their own government’s sanctioned trade embargoes, the impressments of seamen by the United Kingdom, and interpersonal negative sentiments that greatly restricted America’sRead MoreReligion Has Played An Important Role In The History Of1108 Words   |  5 Pagesrole in the history of the United States and in creating the colonies of the New World in many ways. Religion was definitely one of the major reasons for the establishment of the colonies. The early colonists wanted the freedom to worship God as they seen as proper, and they were promised this freedom of worship. Most of these colonies were deeply rooted in their religious beliefs. Religion strongly influenced the social a nd political life of the colonial times in the New World. Generally, in theRead MoreEssay on Benjamin Franklin: American Diplomat1045 Words   |  5 Pages During the seventeen hundreds, the United States was created by a group of individuals who stressed the freedom, equality, and justice for all people. The founders of the United States had no idea they would create one of the richest nations in the world. Today however, many Americans have forgotten to honor these groups of intellectuals that built this country and refused to rule it. Benjamin Franklin, a famous and respected diplomat in the seventeen hundreds, was one of the most influential foundersRead MoreCause Of The War Of 18121643 Words   |  7 Pagesthe outbreak of war between England and France in 1793 that ultimately lead to the war of 1812 Pg 24 Threat of Invasion England went back to war with france in 1803. Napoleon was determined to defeat England on her own soil and never again until the summer of 1940 was England so near invasion and defeat. British Policy towards the United states was governed by European affairs. United States was involved inextricably in the Affairs of Europe. From 1803 to 1805 England considered herself in imminent